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RED LIGHT CAMERA TICKETS & RED LIGHT TICKETS ISSUED BY AN OFFICER
Currently, the majority of red light tickets are issued by the red light camera enforcement systems installed all across the country. Generally, the red light camera takes pictures or a videotape of the driver and the vehicle approaching and entering the intersection when the light is red. Then, within a few days a red light camera ticket is mailed to the registered owner of the vehicle informing the owner that a red light violation was committed using the vehicle. At this point, the owner of the vehicle has a few options:
- Pay the red light camera ticket or
- Contest the red light camera ticket or
- Pay the fine and request traffic school (varies depending on the state) or
- Identify the driver if the driver was different than the registered owner of the vehicle
After receiving the red light camera ticket most people look at the photographs and/or the videotape (online) and decide to pay the fine and call it a day. The reason the red light camera enforcement tickets include the nice color photographs and a videotape of the incident is to provide photographic evidence and convince the recipient of the ticket to just pay the fine and most people do. However, what most people do not know is that despite the fact that they may have entered the intersection while the light was red, the red light camera ticket may not be a valid citation. Because, in order for the red light camera ticket to be valid there are many operating requirements that must be met by the red light camera system.
That is how many people contest and beat their red light camera tickets with a trial by written declaration. It is important for you to have detailed knowledge of the red light camera systems and traffic signal design and operation.
The following provides general information and a list of frequently asked questions about red light violation of California Vehicle Code Section 21453 and red light camera systems:
The technical factors that affect traffic signals at an intersection could play a vital role on a driver’s behavior when approaching a signalized intersection and result in a red light ticket. This is especially true for locations equipped with red light camera enforcement systems. If the traffic signal and the red light cameras are not properly installed and operated according to design standards, then it is likely that a driver may enter the intersection during the red light cycle without the intention to do so and receive a red light ticket. This is where a detailed knowledge of red light camera systems and traffic signal operating standards could be vital to fight and beat red light tickets in traffic court.
To successfully fight and beat red light tickets a defendant (you) must be able to point out that there was a problem with the red light cameras and the traffic signal regulating driver conduct, or some other technical issue that renders the red light violation charge against the driver (you) invalid. If you decide to sign up for our service, please make sure to include all the reasons for which you think the ticket should be dismissed in the text box area provided on our sign up form. We solely rely on that information to complete your documents for the trial by written declaration.
Virtually every jurisdiction is subject to stringent rules and regulations for operation of red light camera systems and traffic signal design and operation. As a result, violations of those regulations can provide a defense for an officer issued red light ticket or a red light camera ticket.
RED LIGHT CAMERA TICKET
For red light camera tickets, if you were not the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged red light violation, then you are not responsible for the red light camera ticket. The red light camera ticket is intended for the driver of the vehicle not the registered owner. However, the red light camera ticket is mailed to the registered owner of the vehicle. If you were not the driver during the alleged red light camera violation, all you have to do is to complete a form of non-responsibility and mail it to the issuing agency as directed on the red light camera ticket. However, you must identify the driver by providing the driver’s name, address and etc. The traffic court will not accept your your non-responsibility form if you are unable to identify the driver during the alleged red light camera violation and you will be the assumed driver and be held responsible for the red light camera ticket.
If you were the driver of the vehicle and your face appears clearly in the photograph, then to fight and beat red light camera ticket effectively you would need to look at the detailed red light camera system operation and the traffic signal related design and operational standards.
However, for the layperson to analyze the red light camera system and the traffic signal operation at an intersection could be at a minimum extremely challenging to impossible.
More information in form of questions and answers on red light camera tickets and technical factors that are critical to successfully fight red light camera tickets in traffic court:
The use of red light camera systems for automated enforcement of red light violations at signalized intersections is on the rise in United States, especially in cash strapped California. Click on the highlighted text for a list of Red Light Camera Locations in California by City name.
1- Why do governmental agencies install red light camera systems?
The Official buzz word used by almost all of the governmental agencies to justify the installation of red light camera systems is “Safety”. Most agencies claim that red light cameras reduce the number of accidents at intersections by reducing the number of red light violations. According to a 2004 study by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), crashes caused by running red light resulted in 854 fatalities and more than 168,000 injuries. Such studies have been used to make compelling arguments for the installation of red light camera systems. However, rarely there is a reference made to before and after studies that analyze the number of accidents after the red light camera systems are installed.
2- Do red light camera systems reduce accidents at intersection?
According to a comprehensive study conducted by Federal Highway Administration, which included 132 intersections across the country; including El Cajon, San Diego and San Francisco, the use of red light camera systems generated the following results:
- 25% decrease in total right-angle accidents
- 16% reduction in injury right angle accidents
- 15% increase in total rear-end accidents
- 24% increase in injury rear-end accidents
As it is evident in the data the red light camera systems reduce one type of accident, however they result in an increase in another. Therefore, a blanket statement that automated red light camera enforcement is used to increase safety at signalized intersections is not accurate.
3- How are the locations for red light camera systems selected for installation?
Most agencies conducted an analysis of the accidents at signalized intersection. The locations with the highest level of accidents due to running red light are selected for evaluation. According to standards set by FHWA, initially the agencies are supposed to look at deficiencies in the design and configuration of traffic signals at intersections that may contribute to red light violation related accidents. For example, inadequate stopping distance or limited visibility of the traffic signal may be the reason for running red light. After all possible physical improvements have been made to improve the intersection then a red light camera system may be considered for installation. One of the most important considerations for reducing running red light violations at intersections is the traffic signal timing. Research studies have shown that inadequate traffic signal timing tends to increase running red light violations.
4- How do I know if possible engineering counter-measures were implemented to reduce running red light violations at an intersection where I received a red light camera ticket ?
This is where things get a little more technical. Most people will not be able to determine if a traffic signal design the installation and the operation was done according to industry standards or any modifications made to the red light operation. It takes years of experience and knowledge to be able to determine the deficiencies of a traffic signal operation at an intersection, especially to fight red light camera tickets in traffic court. This is where the knowledge about red light cameras can make a difference between getting the red light camera ticket dismissed or not. We have listed a few of the deficiencies here; traffic signal head visibility, additional traffic signal head, all red clearance interval, yellow clearance time, intersection warning signs, advanced yellow flashing lights, approach speed, traffic signal coordination, advanced vehicle detection.
5- Can a red light camera ticket be dismissed based on deficiencies in the traffic signal operation?
Yes, driver behavior at a red light is influenced by the design and the operation of traffic control devices including traffic signals. Therefore, drivers are more likely to run red lights at locations where the traffic signal installation and the operation were not in compliance with the State and Federal standards. The most important issue to successfully fight or beat red light camera tickets in traffic court is obviously first to be able to identify the deficiencies in the red light camera system and the traffic signal operation and then be able to explain it to the judge in traffic court in a clear and concise manner with detailed exhibits and references to the specific California Vehicle Code sections and other applicable red light manuals.
6- How does the yellow clearance time affect red light camera tickets ?
After the installation of a red light camera system, the yellow clearance time will affect the number of red light camera tickets issued at a location. An increase in the yellow clearance time will result in a decrease in the number of red light camera tickets and a decrease in the yellow clearance time interval will result in an increase in the number of red light camera tickets.
7- To reduce running red light violations and increase safety, why the agencies do not increase the yellow clearance time at intersections?
That is a very valid question. Most probable answer is that red light camera tickets generate a tremendous amount of money for most governmental agencies and the private vendors that operate the cameras (see red light camera ticket cost) .
8- Can inadequate yellow clearance time at an intersection be grounds to dismiss red light camera ticket ?
Yes, if the traffic signal timing is set in such a manner that the yellow clearance time does not meet the minimum yellow clearance time, then that can be grounds to dismiss red light camera tickets.
9- How long should the minimum yellow clearance time be at an intersection for red light camera ticket?
MINIMUM YELLOW CLEARANCE INTERVAL FOR RED LIGHT CAMERA TICKETS
25 OR LESS
10- If the yellow clearance time is not set according to the minimum requirements, as shown in the table, would my red light camera ticket be dismissed ?
The chances are very high that a judge would dismiss red light camera tickets based on the insufficient yellow clearance time, provided that sufficient evidence is produced to show that the yellow clearance time was not in accordance to the standards.
11- What is the California Vehicle Code Section for red light ticket violation?
The California Vehicle Code Sections that regulate the red light violation for a red light
camera ticket or for a red light ticket issued by a traffic officer are:
- 21453 a for entering an intersection while there is a round red traffic signal indication.
- 21453 b for not stopping at a red traffic signal indication prior to turning at an
- 21453 c for entering an intersection while there is a red arrow traffic signal indication.
12- Is a red light camera ticket defense different for violation of 21453 a in comparison to violation of 21453 c?
Yes. For violation of 21453 c the most important issue is that the yellow clearance time requirement for a turning movement (left turn or right turn) is 3.0 seconds. Although the yellow clearance time may be increased taking into consideration various conditions at the intersection. However, the extended yellow clearance time is not mandatory. Therefore, a compelling argument must be made to demonstrate that the 3.0 second yellow clearance time at that particular location created an unsafe situation for the public and the lack of incremental increase in the yellow clearance time contributed to the red light camera ticket.
13- What are the components in a red light camera system?
A red light camera system consists of the following on-street components:
- Camera Units
- Intersection lighting
- Camera housing and support structure
- Vehicle detection
- Warning signs
14- What type of red light camera units are there?
There are three general types of camera units used to automatically record red light
violations, as shown below:
- 35 mm conventional film unit
- Digital video units
- Digital still picture units
15- How do red light camera systems detect cars running red light?
There are vehicle detectors that are used to trigger the red light cameras to record a vehicle speed approaching an intersection and potentially running red lights.
16- What are red light camera vehicle detectors?
A great majority of red light camera systems employ two sets of in ground traffic signal inductive loops installed near the intersection. However, it is critical for the loops to be installed in appropriate positions to prevent the issuance of unwarranted red light camera tickets. Therefore, the integrity of the red light camera system depends heavily on the loop detectors as well as the minimum yellow clearance time. If the loop detectors are not properly installed that argument may be used to dismiss red light camera tickets.
17- What is the purpose of the advanced loop detectors?
Most of the software used to operate the red light camera systems rely on data transmitted from the advanced loops installed in advance on the approach to the intersection. The purpose of the advanced loops is to estimate the approach speed of a vehicle. Depending on preset thresholds based on speed, the red light cameras are activated to record the approaching vehicles that are likely to run red lights.
18- How much is a red light camera fine?
For a complete list of red light camera fines click on the highlighted text. Red light camera ticket fines for 2012 in California.
The California Vehicle Code sections that are relevant to a red light ticket including red light camera tickets are listed below:
CALIFORNIA VEHICLE CODE SECTIONS 21450-21468
21450. Whenever traffic is controlled by official traffic control signals showing different colored lights, color-lighted arrows, or color-lighted bicycle symbols, successively, one at a time, or in combination, only the colors green, yellow, and red shall be used, except for pedestrian control signals, and those lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles, operators of bicycles, and pedestrians as provided in this chapter.
21450.5. (a) A traffic-actuated signal is an official traffic control signal, as specified in Section 445, that displays one or more of its indications in response to the presence of traffic detected by mechanical, visual, electrical, or other means.
(b) Upon the first placement of a traffic-actuated signal or replacement of the loop detector of a traffic-actuated signal, the traffic-actuated signal shall, to the extent feasible and in conformance with professional traffic engineering practice, be installed and maintained so as to detect lawful bicycle or motorcycle traffic on the roadway.
(c) Cities, counties, and cities and counties shall not be required to comply with the provisions contained in subdivision (b) until the Department of Transportation, in consultation with these entities, has established uniform standards, specifications, and
guidelines for the detection of bicycles and motorcycles by traffic-actuated signals and related signal timing.
(d) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends that date.
21451. (a) A driver facing a circular green signal shall proceed straight through or turn right or left or make a U-turn unless a sign prohibits a U-turn. Any driver, including one turning, shall yield the right-of-way to other traffic and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk.
(b) A driver facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, shall enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by that green arrow or any other movement that is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. A driver facing a left green arrow may also make a U-turn unless prohibited by a sign. A driver shall yield the right-of-way to other traffic and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk.
(c) A pedestrian facing a circular green signal, unless prohibited by sign or otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in Section 21456, may proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk, but shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time that signal is first shown.
(d) A pedestrian facing a green arrow turn signal, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in Section 21456, shall not enter the roadway.
21452. (a) A driver facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal is, by that signal, warned that the related green movement is ending or that a red indication will be shown immediately thereafter.
(b) A pedestrian facing a steady circular yellow or a yellow arrow signal, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in Section 21456, is, by that signal, warned that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway and shall not enter the roadway.
The red light ticket or the red light camera ticket is issued as a violation of California vehicle code section 21453 a or 21453 c
21453 a . A driver facing a steady circular red signal alone shall stop at a marked limit line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain stopped until an indication to proceed is shown, except as provided in subdivision (b).
Red light tickets are issued for code section 21453 b if there is a No Right Turn restriction at the intersection.
(b) Except when a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, a driver, after stopping as required by subdivision (a), facing a steady circular red signal, may turn right, or turn left from a one-way street onto a one-way street. A driver making that turn shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to any vehicle that has approached or is approaching so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard to the driver, and shall continue to yield the right-of-way to that vehicle until the driver can proceed with reasonable safety.
(c) A driver facing a steady red arrow signal shall not enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow and, unless entering the intersection to make a movement permitted by another signal, shall stop at a clearly marked limit line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain stopped until an indication permitting movement is shown.
(d) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in Section 21456, a pedestrian facing a steady circular red or red arrow signal shall not enter the roadway.
21454. When lane use control signals are placed over individual lanes, those signals shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles as follows:
(a) Green indication: A driver may travel in any lane over which a green signal is shown.(b) Steady yellow indication: A driver is thereby warned that a lane control change is being made.
(c) Steady red indication: A driver shall not enter or travel in any lane over which a red signal is shown.
(d) Flashing yellow indication: A driver may use the lane only for the purpose of making a left turn to or from the highway.
21455. When an official traffic control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this article shall be applicable except those provisions which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required shall be made at a sign or crosswalk or limit line indicating where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking the stop shall be made at the signal.
21455.5. (a) The limit line, the intersection, or a place designated in Section 21455, where a driver is required to stop, may be equipped with an automated enforcement system if the governmental agency utilizing the system meets all of the following requirements:
(1) Identifies the system by signs that clearly indicate the system's presence and are visible to traffic approaching from all directions, or posts signs at all major entrances to the city, including, at a minimum, freeways, bridges, and state highway routes.
(2) If it locates the system at an intersection, and ensures that the system meets the criteria specified in Section 21455.7.
(b) Prior to issuing citations under this section, a local jurisdiction utilizing an automated traffic enforcement system shall commence a program to issue only warning notices for 30 days. The local jurisdiction shall also make a public announcement of the automated traffic enforcement system at least 30 days prior to the commencement of the enforcement program.
(c) Only a governmental agency, in cooperation with a law enforcement agency, may operate an automated enforcement system. As used in this subdivision, "operate" includes all of the following activities:
(1) Developing uniform guidelines for screening and issuing violations and for the processing and storage of confidential information, and establishing procedures to ensure compliance with those guidelines.
(2) Performing administrative functions and day-to-day functions, including, but not limited to, all of the following:
(A) Establishing guidelines for selection of location.
(B) Ensuring that the equipment is regularly inspected.
(C) Certifying that the equipment is properly installed and calibrated, and is operating properly.
(D) Regularly inspecting and maintaining warning signs placed under paragraph (1) of subdivision (a).
(E) Overseeing the establishment or change of signal phases and the timing thereof.
(F) Maintaining controls necessary to assure that only those citations that have been reviewed and approved by law enforcement are delivered to violators.
(d) The activities listed in subdivision (c) that relate to the operation of the system may be contracted out by the governmental agency, if it maintains overall control and supervision of the system. However, the activities listed in paragraph (1) of, and subparagraphs (A), (D), (E), and (F) of paragraph (2) of, subdivision (c) may not be contracted out to the manufacturer or supplier of the automated enforcement system.
(e) (1) Notwithstanding Section 6253 of the Government Code, or any other provision of law, photographic records made by an automated enforcement system shall be confidential, and shall be made available only to governmental agencies and law enforcement agencies and only for the purposes of this article.
(2) Confidential information obtained from the Department of Motor Vehicles for the administration or enforcement of this article shall be held confidential, and may not be used for any other purpose.
(3) Except for court records described in Section 68152 of the Government Code, the confidential records and information described in paragraphs (1) and (2) may be retained for up to six months from the date the information was first obtained, or until final disposition of the citation, whichever date is later, after which time the information shall be destroyed in a manner that will preserve the confidentiality of any person included in the record or information.
(f) Notwithstanding subdivision (d), the registered owner or any individual identified by the registered owner as the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged violation shall be permitted to review the photographic evidence of the alleged violation.
(g) (1) A contract between a governmental agency and a manufacturer or supplier of automated enforcement equipment may not include provision for the payment or compensation to the manufacturer or supplier based on the number of citations generated, or as a percentage of the revenue generated, as a result of the use of the equipment authorized under this section.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a contract that was entered into by a governmental agency and a manufacturer or supplier of automated enforcement equipment before January 1, 2004, unless that contract is renewed, extended, or amended on or after January 1, 2004.
21455.6. (a) A city council or county board of supervisors shall conduct a public hearing on the proposed use of an automated enforcement system authorized under Section 21455.5 prior to authorizing the city or county to enter into a contract for the use of the system.
(b) (1) The activities listed in subdivision (c) of Section 21455.5 that relate to the operation of an automated enforcement system may be contracted out by the city or county, except that the activities listed in paragraph (1) of, and sub paragraphs (A), (D), (E), or (F) of paragraph (2) of, subdivision (c) of Section 21455.5 may not be contracted out to the manufacturer or supplier of the automated enforcement system.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a contract that was entered into by a city or county and a manufacturer or supplier of automated enforcement equipment before January 1, 2004, unless that contract is renewed, extended, or amended on or after January 1, 2004.
(c) The authorization in Section 21455.5 to use automated enforcement systems does not authorize the use of photo radar for speed enforcement purposes by any jurisdiction.
21455.7. (a) At an intersection at which there is an automated enforcement system in operation, the minimum yellow light change interval shall be established in accordance with the Traffic Manual of the Department of Transportation.
(b) For purposes of subdivision (a), the minimum yellow light change intervals relating to designated approach speeds provided in the Traffic Manual of the Department of Transportation are mandatory minimum yellow light intervals.
(c) A yellow light change interval may exceed the minimum interval established pursuant to subdivision (a).
21456. Whenever a pedestrian control signal showing the words "WALK" or "WAIT" or "DON'T WALK" or other approved symbol is in place, the signal shall indicate as follows:
(a) "WALK" or approved "Walking Person" symbol. A pedestrian facing the signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal, but shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time that signal is first shown.
(b) Flashing or steady "DON'T WALK" or "WAIT" or approved "Upraised Hand" symbol. No pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal, but any pedestrian who has partially completed crossing shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety zone or otherwise leave the roadway while the "WAIT" or "DON'T WALK" or approved "Upraised Hand" symbol is showing.
21456.1. Whenever an official traffic control signal exhibiting an approved "Walking Person" symbol, an approved "Upraised Hand" symbol, or the words "WALK" or "WAIT" or "DON'T WALK" is shown concurrently with official traffic control signals exhibiting the words "GO" or "CAUTION" or "STOP" or exhibiting different colored lights successively, one at a time or with arrows, a pedestrian facing those traffic control signals shall obey the "Walking Person," "Upraised Hand," "WALK" or "WAIT" or "DON'T WALK" control signal as provided in Section 21456.
21456.2. (a) Unless otherwise directed by a bicycle signal as provided in Section 21456.3, an operator of a bicycle shall obey the provisions of this article applicable to the driver of a vehicle.
(b) Whenever an official traffic control signal exhibiting different colored bicycle symbols is shown concurrently with official traffic control signals exhibiting different colored lights or arrows, an operator of a bicycle facing those traffic control signals shall obey the bicycle signals as provided in Section 21456.3.
To fight red light camera tickets go to the top of the page.
21456.3. (a) An operator of a bicycle facing a green bicycle signal shall proceed straight through or turn right or left or make a U-turn unless a sign prohibits a U-turn. An operator of a bicycle, including one turning, shall yield the right-of-way to other traffic and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk.
(b) An operator of a bicycle facing a steady yellow bicycle signal is, by that signal, warned that the related green movement is ending or that a red indication will be shown immediately thereafter.
(c) Except as provided in subdivision (d), an operator of a bicycle facing a steady red bicycle signal shall stop at a marked limit line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain stopped until an indication to proceed is shown.
(d) Except when a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, an operator of a bicycle, after stopping as required by subdivision (c), facing a steady red bicycle signal, may turn right, or turn left from a one-way street onto a one-way street. An operator of a bicycle making a turn shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to traffic lawfully using the intersection.
(e) A bicycle signal may be used only at those locations that meet geometric standards or traffic volume standards, or both, as adopted by the Department of Transportation.
21457. Whenever an illuminated flashing red or yellow light is used in a traffic signal or with a traffic sign, it shall require obedience by drivers as follows:
(a) Flashing red (stop signal): To fight red light camera tickets go to the top of the page.
When a red lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, a driver shall stop at a clearly marked limit line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it, and the driver may proceed subject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.
(b) Flashing yellow (caution signal): When a yellow lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, a driver may proceed through the intersection or past the signal only with caution.
21458. (a) Whenever local authorities enact local parking regulations and indicate them by the use of paint upon curbs, the following colors only shall be used, and the colors indicate as follows:
(1) Red indicates no stopping, standing, or parking, whether the vehicle is attended or unattended, except that a bus may stop in a red zone marked or signposted as a bus loading zone.
(2) Yellow indicates stopping only for the purpose of loading or unloading passengers or freight for the time as may be specified by local ordinance.
(3) White indicates stopping for either of the following purposes:
(A) Loading or unloading of passengers for the time red light camera tickets as may be specified by local ordinance.
(B) Depositing mail in an adjacent mailbox to fight red light camera tickets go to the top of the page.
(4) Green indicates time limit parking specified by local ordinance.
(5) Blue indicates parking limited red light camera tickets exclusively to the vehicles of disabled persons and disabled veterans.
(b) Regulations adopted pursuant to subdivision (a) shall be effective on days and during hours or times as prescribed by local ordinances.
21459. (a) The Department of Transportation in respect to state highways and a local authority with respect to highways under its jurisdiction, is authorized to place and maintain upon highways distinctive roadway markings red light camera tickets as described and with the effect set forth in Section 21460.
(b) The distinctive roadway markings shall be employed to designate any portion of a highway fight or beat red light camera tickets where the volume of traffic or the vertical or other curvature of the roadway renders it hazardous to drive on the left side of the marking or to indicate no driving to the left as provided in Section 21460, and shall not be employed for any other purpose.
(c) Any pavement marking other red light camera tickets than as described in this section placed by the Department of Transportation or any local authority shall not be effective to indicate no driving over or to the left of the marking.
21460. (a) When double parallel solid lines are in place, no person driving a vehicle shall drive to the left thereof, except as permitted in this section.
(b) When the fight or beat red light camera tickets double parallel lines, one of which is broken, are in place, no person driving a vehicle shall drive to the left thereof, except as follows:
(1) That the driver on that side of the roadway in which the broken line is in place may cross over the double line or drive to the left thereof when overtaking or passing other vehicles.
(2) As provided in Section 21460.5.
(c) Either of the markings as specified in subdivision (a) or (b) does not prohibit a driver from crossing the marking when (1) turning to the left at any intersection or into or out of a driveway or private road, or (2) making a U-turn under the rules governing that turn, and either of the markings shall be disregarded when authorized signs have been erected designating off center traffic lanes as permitted under Section 21657.
(d) Raised pavement markers fight red light camera tickets may be used to simulate painted lines described in this section when the markers are placed in accordance with standards established by the Department of Transportation.
21460.5. (a) The Department of Transportation and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may designate a two-way left-turn lane on a highway. A two-way left-turn lane is a lane near the center of the highway set aside for use by vehicles making left turns in both directions from or into the highway.
(b) Two-way left-turn lanes shall be designated by distinctive roadway markings consisting of parallel double yellow lines, interior line dashed and exterior line solid, on each side of the lane. The Department of Transportation may determine and prescribe standards and specifications governing length, width, and positioning of the distinctive pavement markings. All pavement markings designating a two-way left-turn lane shall conform to the Department of Transportation's standards and specifications.
(c) A vehicle shall not be driven in a designated two-way left-turn lane except when preparing for or making a left turn from or into a highway or when preparing for or making a U-turn when otherwise permitted by law, and shall not be driven in that lane for more than 200 feet while preparing for and making the turn or while preparing to merge into the adjacent lanes of travel. A left turn or U-turn shall not be made from any other lane where a two-way left-turn lane has been designated.
(d) This section does not prohibit driving across a two-way left-turn lane.
(e) Raised pavement markers may be used to simulate the painted lines described in this section when those markers are placed in accordance with standards established by the Department of Transportation.
21461. (a) It is unlawful for a driver of a vehicle to fail to obey a sign or signal defined as regulatory in the federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, or a Department of Transportation approved supplement to that manual of a regulatory nature red light camera tickets erected or maintained to enhance traffic safety and operations or to indicate and carry out the provisions of this code or a local traffic ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to a local traffic ordinance, or to fail to obey a device erected or maintained by lawful authority of a public body or official.
(b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to acts constituting violations under Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 22500) of this division or to acts constituting violations of a local traffic ordinance adopted pursuant to Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 22500).
21461.5. It shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to fail to obey any sign or signal erected or maintained to indicate or carry out the provisions red light camera tickets of this code or any local traffic ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to a local traffic ordinance, or to fail to obey any device erected or maintained pursuant to Section 21352.
21462. The driver of any vehicle, the person in charge of any animal, any pedestrian, and the motorman of any streetcar shall obey the instructions of any official traffic signal applicable to him and placed as provided by law, unless otherwise directed by a police or traffic officer or when it is necessary red light camera tickets for the purpose of avoiding a collision or in case of other emergency, subject to the exemptions granted by Section 21055.
21463. No person shall operate a manually or traffic actuated signal other than for the purpose of permitting a pedestrian or vehicle to cross a roadway.
21464. (a) A person, without lawful authority, may not deface, injure, attach any material or substance to, knock down, or remove, nor may a person shoot at, any official traffic control device, traffic guidepost, traffic signpost, motorist call box, or historical marker placed or erected as authorized or required by law, nor may a person without lawful authority deface, injure, attach any material or substance to, or remove, nor may a person shoot at, any inscription, shield, or insignia on any device, guide, or marker.
(b) A person may not use, and a vehicle, other than an authorized emergency vehicle or a public transit passenger vehicle, may not be equipped with, any device, including, but not limited to, a mobile infrared transmitter, that is capable of sending a signal that interrupts or changes the red light camera tickets sequence patterns of an official traffic control signal unless that device or use is authorized by the Department of Transportation pursuant to Section 21350 or by local authorities pursuant to Section 21351.
(c) A person may not buy, possess, manufacture, install, sell, offer for sale, or otherwise distribute a device described in subdivision (b), including, but not limited to, a mobile infrared transmitter (MIRT), red light camera tickets unless the purchase, possession, manufacture, installation, sale, offer for sale, or distribution is for the use of the device by a peace officer or other person authorized to operate an authorized emergency vehicle or a public transit passenger vehicle, in the scope of his or her duties.
(d) Any willful violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c) that results in injury to, or the death of, a person is punishable by red light camera tickets imprisonment in the state prison, or by imprisonment in a county jail for a period of not more than six months, and by a fine of not less than five thousand dollars ($5,000) nor more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000).
(e) Any willful violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c) that does not result in injury to, or the death of, a person is punishable by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000).
(f) The court shall allow the offender to perform community service designated by the court in lieu of all or part of any fine imposed under this section.
21465. No person shall place, maintain, or display upon, or in view of, any highway any unofficial sign, signal, device, or red light camera tickets marking, or any sign, signal, device, or marking which purports to be or is an imitation of, or resembles, an official traffic control device or which attempts to direct the movement of traffic or which hides from view any official traffic control device.
21466. No person shall place or maintain or display upon or in view of any highway any light in such position as to prevent the driver of a vehicle from readily recognizing any official traffic control device.
21466.5. No person shall place or maintain or display, upon or in view of any highway, any light of any color of such brilliance as to impair the vision of drivers upon the highway. A light source shall be considered vision impairing when red light camera tickets its brilliance exceeds the values listed below.
The brightness reading of an objectionable light source shall be measured with a 11/2-degree photoelectric brightness meter placed at the driver's point of view. The maximum measured red light camera tickets brightness of the light source within 10 degrees from the driver's normal line of sight shall not be more than 1,000 times the minimum measured brightness in the driver's field of view, except that when the minimum measured brightness in the field red light camera tickets of view is 10 foot-lamberts or less, the measured brightness of the light source in foot-lambert shall not exceed 500 plus 100 times the angle, in degrees, between red light camera tickets the driver's line of sight and the light source red light camera tickets. The provisions of this section shall not apply to railroads as defined in Section 229 of the Public Utilities Code.
21467. Every prohibited sign, signal, device, or light is a public nuisance, and the Department of Transportation, members of the California Highway Patrol, and local authorities are hereby authorized and empowered without notice to red light camera tickets remove the same, or cause the same to be removed, or the Director of Transportation, the commissioner, or local authorities may bring an action as provided by law to abate such nuisance.
21468. This division does not modify or limit the authority of the Public Utilities Commission to erect or maintain, or cause to be erected and maintained, signs, signals or other traffic control devices as authorized by law.
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